1.6.U1 Mitosis is division of the nucleus into two genetically identical daughter nuclei.
- State the function of mitosis.
- List four processes which involve mitosis.
- State the names of the four phases of mitosis.
- Draw typical eukaryotic cells as they would appear during the interphase and the four phases of mitosis.
- Outline four events that occur during prophase.
- Outline the process of metaphase, inclusive of the role of microtubules and the kinetochore.
- Outline the process of anaphase.
- Outline four events that occur during telophase.
1.6.U2 Chromosomes condense by supercoiling during mitosis.
- Describe the structure of a replicated chromosome, include the centromere and sister chromatids.
- Explain why chromosomes must condense during mitosis.
1.6.U3 Cytokinesis occurs after mitosis and is different in plants and animal cells.
- Define cytokinesis.
- State the difference between mitosis and cytokinesis.
- Contrast cytokinesis in plant and animal cells.
- Describe the formation of the cleavage furrow in animal cell cytokinesis.
- Describe the formation of the middle lamella and cell wall in plant cell cytokinesis.
1.6.U4 Interphase is a very active phase of the cell cycle with many processes occurring in the nucleus and cytoplasm.
- List example metabolic reactions occurring during cell interphase.
- Outline events of G1, S, G2 and G0 phases of interphase.
1.6.U5 Cyclins are involved in the control of the cell cycle.
- Explain the role of cyclin and cyclin-CDK complexes in controlling the cell cycle.
- State the role of cyclins D, B, A and E in the cell cycle.
1.6.U6 Mutagens, oncogenes and metastasis are involved in the development of primary and secondary tumors.
- Define tumor, benign, malignant, metastasis, cancer, mutagen and carcinogen.
- Describe why mutagens are not necessarily carcinogens.
- Describe how cancer arises, referring to accumulation of mutations over time.
- Explain the relationship between oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and cancer.
1.6.A1 The correlation between smoking and incidence of cancers.
- Explain the use of correlations to determine the relationship between two variables (inclusive of positive and negative correlations).
- Explain why the existence of a correlation does not necessitate a causal relationship between two variables.
- Calculate a correlation coefficient using Pearson's R.
- Determine if a correlation coefficient value is significant.
- Define significant as related to the relationship between two variables.
- Use epidemiological case study information to outline the relationships between smoking and cancer.
1.6.S1 Identification of phases of mitosis in cells viewed with a microscope or in a micrograph.
- Determine the phase of mitosis of a cell viewed in a micrograph or with a microscope.
1.6.S2 Determination of a mitotic index from a micrograph
- State the formula for calculation of a mitotic index.
- Calculate the mitotic index of a tissue as seen in a micrograph.
- Outline the use of mitotic index calculations in diagnosis and treatment of cancer
1.6.NOS Serendipity and scientific discoveries- the discoveries of cyclins was accidental.
- Outline the discovery of cyclins including the role of serendipity.
IN the News
Cell Division (unit 6A)
- Unraveling cell division: Process of mitosis more clear, thanks to new research (2014-09-16)
- Unlocking long-hidden mechanisms of plant cell division (2014-09-25)
- Cells check DNA segregation at the end of their division (2015-05-05)
- DNA replication: Protein scaffold created by researchers (2015-05-27)
- Scientists identify structure of crucial enzyme in cell division (2016-03-30)
- Purging the body of 'retired' cells could reverse ageing, study shows (2017-03-23)
- 'Hail Mary' mechanism can rescue cells with severely damaged chromosomes (2017-06-05)
Cell Cycle and Cancer (unit 6B)
- The cancer drug that almost wasn't (2014-08-21)
- A biological quest leads to a new kind of breast cancer drug (2015-02-19)
- Seattle scientist trying to disrupt HPV, which hacks your cells to cause cancer (2014-07-10)
- An unstoppable killer: New research suggests cancer can't be eradicated (2014-08-21)
- Cancer’s random assault (2015-01-05)
- An extra protein gives naked mole rats more power to stop cancer (2015-02-04)
- Know your exposure: A cancer quiz (2015-02-11)
- You can still get skin cancer in the shade (2015-02-19)
- Gene previously observed only in brain is important driver of metastatic breast cancer (2016-02-12)
- Whoops! 12 Tales Of Accidental Brilliance In Science (2016-02-24)
- THE CANCER ALMANAC (2016-05-12)
- A Map To Help Cancer Doctors Find Their Way (2016-09-09)
- Smoking and mortality — Beyond established causes (2015-02-12)
- A New Death Toll for Smoking (2016-10-31)
- DNA study lays bare devastating damage caused by smoking (2016-11-03)
- Cancer Is Partly Caused By Bad Luck, Study Finds (2017-03-23)
- Century-old tumours could shed light on rare childhood cancers (2017-05-18)
- Why do BRCA1 mutations cause predominantly breast and ovarian cancer? (2017-07-18)