Topic 2.4: Proteins
Essential Idea: Proteins have a very wide range of functions in living organisms.
At SHS, Topic 2.4 is taught in the following class unit(s):
2.4.U1 Amino Acids are linked together by condensation to form polypeptides.
- Describe polypeptide chain formation in terms of the formation of peptide bonds and condensation reactions.
- Determine the number of peptide bonds given the number of amino acids in a polypeptide.
- Define dipeptide, oligopeptides and polypeptide.
2.4.U2 There are 20 different amino acids in polypeptides synthesized on ribosomes.
- State the number of amino acids used by living organisms to make polypeptides.
- Given an image of an amino acid, classify the amino acid chemical properties based on R group properties.
- Outline the role vitamin C plays in the conversion of proline to hydroxyproline.
2.4.U3 Amino Acids can be linked together in any sequence giving a huge range of possible polypeptides.
- Calculate the possible number of amino acid sequences given n number of amino acids.
2.4.U4 The amino acid sequence of polypeptides is coded for by genes.
- Outline the relationship between genes and polypeptides.
2.4.U5 A protein may consist of a single polypeptide or more than one polypeptide linked together.
- Outline the structure and function of three example proteins composed of two or more polypeptides linked together.
2.4.U6 The amino acid sequence determines the three-dimensional conformation of a protein.
- Contrast the structure of globular proteins with the structure of fibrous proteins.
- Describe the structure of membrane bound globular proteins.
2.4.U7 Living organisms synthesize many different proteins with a wide range of functions.
- Contrast the generalized function of globular proteins with generalized function of fibrous proteins.
- List ten functions of proteins in a cell or organism.
- Describe the function of enzyme proteins.
- Describe the function of hormone proteins.
- Describe the function of immunoglobulin proteins.
- Describe the function of pigment proteins.
- Describe the function of structural proteins
2.4.U8 Every individual has a unique proteome.
- Define proteome.
- Contrast proteome with genome.
2.4.A1 Rubisco, insulin immunoglobulins, rhodopsin, collagen and spider silk as examples of the range of protein functions.
- State the function of each of the following proteins: rubisco, insulin, immunoglobulin, rhodopsin. collagen, spider silk, actin, myosin, casein, hemoglobin, acetylcholine receptor, oxytocin, prolactin, ferritin, billirubin, fibrinogen, transferrin and albumin.
2.4.A2 Denaturation of proteins by heat or by deviation of pH from the optimum.
- Define denaturation.
- Outline the effect of heat and pH on protein structure.
2.4.S1 Drawing molecular diagrams to show the formation of a peptide bond.
- Draw peptide bond formation in a condensation reactions.
2.4.NOS Looking for patterns, trends, and discrepancies- most but not all organisms assemble proteins from the same amino acids.
- Explain the trend of organisms assembly of polypeptides from the same amino acids.
- Describe a discrepancy of the trend of all organisms using the same amino acids to assemble polypeptides.
In the news
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- A single protein may help explain memory loss in old age (2013-08-29)
- China pours money into proteins (2014-06-10)
- Proteins and a pregnancy woe (2014-07-16)
- How spiders spin silk: Mechanism elegantly expla-ins how spider silk can form so quickly and smoothly (2014-08-05)
- How hummingbirds evolved to detect sweetness (2014-08-21)
- Water 'thermostat' could help engineer drought-resistant crops (2014-08-27)
- Unusually elastic protein found by researchers; may have originated in cnidarian elastomer (2015-01-23)
- The most complete catalog of proteins in king cobra venom yet (2016-08-15)
- Proteomics and precision medicine (2016-02-05)
- Spinning a new version of spider silk (2015-05-28)
- Researchers discover protein protecting against chlorine (2014-12-18)
- Chemists find a way to unboil egg whites: Ability to quickly restore molecular proteins could slash biotechnology costs (2015-01-26)
- How unboiled eggs could help fight food waste (2015-02-02)