Topic 2.3: Carbohydrates and Lipids
Essential Idea: Compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are used to supply and store energy.
At SHS, Topic 2.3 is taught in the following class unit(s):
2.3.U1 Monosaccharide monomers are linked together by condensation reactions to form disaccharides and polysaccharide polymers.
- Define monosaccharide, disaccharide and polysaccharide.
- List three examples of monosaccharides.
- List three examples of disaccharides.
- List three examples of polysaccharides.
- Use molecular diagrams to draw the formation of maltose from two glucose monomers.
- Explain a condensation reaction connecting two monosaccharides in the formation of a disaccharide.
2.3.U2 Fatty acids can be saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated.
- Describe the differences between saturated and unsaturated (mono- or poly-) fatty acids.
2.3.U3 Unsaturated fatty acids can be cis or trans isomers.
- Describe the differences between cis- and trans- fatty acids.
2.3.U4 Triglycerides are formed by condensation from three fatty acids and one glycerol.
- Outline the difference between fats and oils.
- Explain a condensation reaction connecting fatty acids and glycerol to form a triglyceride..
- State two functions of triglycerides.
2.3.A1 Structure and function of cellulose and starch in plants and glycogen in humans.
- State the structural difference between alpha and beta glucose.
- Contrast the structure and functions of cellulose, amylose, amylopectin and glycogen.
2.3.A2 Scientific evidence for health risks of trans fat and saturated fatty acids.
- Discuss the relationship between saturated fatty acid and trans-unsaturated fat intake and rates of coronary heart disease.
2.3.A3 Lipids are more suitable for long term energy storage in humans than carbohydrates.
- Explain the energy storage of lipids compared to that of carbohydrates.
2.3.A4 Evaluation of evidence and the methods used to obtain the evidence for health claims made about lipids.
- Define evaluation in respect to evidence from and methods of research.
- Outline the manner in which the implications of research can be assessed.
- Outline the manner in which the limitations of research can be assessed.
- Evaluate a given health claim made about lipids.
2.3.S1 Use of molecular visualization software to compare cellulose, starch and glycogen.
- Demonstrate use of JMol to view molecular structures, including changing image size, rotating the image and changing the style of the molecular model.
- Identify carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms by color.
2.3.S2 Determination of body mass index by calculation or use of a nomogram.
- Calculate BMI using the formula.
- Determine BMI using a nomogram.
- Outline effects of a BMI that is too high or too low.
2.3.NOS Evaluating claims- health claims made about lipids in diets need to be assessed.
- Describe how the effect of lipids on health can be assessed scientifically.
In the News
- Pasture feeding may improve nutritional benefits of red meat (2015-01-21)
- A novel shuttle for fatty acids (2015-02-03)
- Salty, sweet, sour. Is it time to make fat the sixth taste? (2015-02-18)
- More light shed on on biomass breakdown (2015-01-23)
- A taxi ride to starch granules (2015-02-26)
- How stick insects handle indigestive food (2016-03-10)
- Dietary Guidelines for Americans—Eat Less Fat (2016-05-03)
- A call for a low-carb diet that embraces fat (2014-09-01)
- Trans fat bans lessen health risks, research suggests (2017-04-14)
- Don't use body mass index to determine whether people are healthy (2016-02-04)
- Does Putting On A Few Pounds Help You Cheat Death? (2016-05-10)
- Higher BMI not associated with increased risk of heart attack or early death, twin study shows (2016-08-01)
- F.D.A. sets 2018 deadline to rid foods of trans fats (2016-06-16)
- The Food Industry's Influence In Nutrition Research (2016-09-17)