11.1.U1 Every organism has unique molecules on the surface of its cells.
List example antigen molecules.
11.1.U2 B lymphocytes are activated by T lymphocytes in mammals.
Explain the “challenge and response” mechanism of specific immunity.
Describe activation of helper T lymphocytes by the macrophage.
Describe activation of B cell lymphocytes by the helper T cells.
11.1.U3 Plasma cells secrete antibodies.
Outline the structure and function of plasma B cells.
11.1U4 Activated B cells multiply to form clones of plasma cells and memory cells.
Describe clonal selection of plasma B cells.
11.4.U5 Antibodies aid the destruction of pathogens.
Outline four modes of antibody action.
11.1.U6 Immunity depends upon the persistence of memory cells.
State two mechanisms of immunity.
Explain the differences between the primary and secondary immune responses.
11.1.U7 Vaccines contain antigens that trigger immunity but do not cause the disease.
Explain the principle of vaccination.
11.1.U8 Pathogens can be species-specific although others can cross species barriers.
Outline mechanisms that prevent some pathogens from crossing species.
List three examples of zoonotic diseases.
11.1.U9 White cells release histamine in response to allergens.
State the source and function of histamine proteins.
11.1.U10 Histamines cause allergic symptoms.
List allergic symptoms caused by histamines.
State the function of an anti-histamine.
11.1.U11 Fusion of a tumor cell with an antibody-producing plasma cell creates a hybridoma cell.
Explain the production of hybridoma cells.
11.1.U12 Monoclonal antibodies are produced by hybridoma cells.
Define “monoclonal antibody.”
Describe the production of monoclonal antibodies in hybridoma cells.
Outline the use of monoclonal antibodies in diagnosis and treatment.
11.1.A1 Antigens on the surface of red blood cells stimulate antibody production in a person with a different blood group.
Outline the difference between the ABO blood antigens.
State the fours human ABO blood types.
Describe the consequence of mismatched blood transfusions, including agglutination and hemolysis.
11.1.A2 Smallpox was the first infectious disease of humans to have been eradicated by vaccination.
Describe the global initiative used to eradicate smallpox.
11.1.A3 Monoclonal antibodies to HCG are used to pregnancy test kits.
Describe a pregnancy test strip works, including the role of free and immobilized monoclonal antibodies.
11.1.S1 Analysis of epidemiological data related to vaccination programs.
Outline the role of an epidemiologist in vaccination programs.
11.1.NOS Consider ethical implications of research- Jenner tested his vaccine for smallpox in a child.
Describe how Jenner tested his smallpox vaccine.
List reasons when Jenner’s test would not be approved today.
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