Topic D.3: Functions of the Liver
Essential Idea: The chemical composition of the blood is regulated by the liver.
- Outline answer to each objective statement for topic D.3 (coming soon)
- Quizlet study set for this topic (coming soon)
At SHS, Topic D.3 is taught in the following class unit(s):
Statements & Objectives:
D.3.U1 The liver removes toxins from the blood and detoxifies them.
- Define “detoxification” as related to liver function.
- Explain the role of the liver in the detoxification of alcohol (including role of ethanol dehydrogenase).
- Outline the role of the liver in the detoxification of ammonia (and formation of urea).
D.3.U2 Components of red blood cells are recycled by the liver.
- State the length of a typical red blood cell life span.
D.3.U3 The breakdown of erythrocytes starts with phagocytosis of red blood cells by Kupffer cells.
- Explain how the structure of Kupffer cells fits their endosymbiosis function.
- Create a flowchart to illustrate the steps and products of the splitting of hemoglobin
D.4.U4 Iron is carried to the bone marrow to produce hemoglobin in new red blood cells.
- Explain how and why iron is transported to the bone marrow bound to transferrin.
- List three anatomical structures that have transferrin receptors on their cell membranes.
- Outline the storage of iron in the liver and spleen (including the role of ferritin).
D.3.U5 Surplus cholesterol is converted to bile salts.
- Outline the roles of hepatocytes in the conversion of excess cholesterol into a component of bile.
- Explain the synthesis of VLDL cholesterol by hepatocytes for transport of triglycerides.
- Describe how the amount of saturated fat in a diet affects the amount of VLDL cholesterol synthesis by the liver.
D.3.U6 Endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus in hepatocytes produce plasma proteins.
- Define and list examples of “plasma proteins.”
- Explain why hepatocytes have a lot of RER and Golgi.
D.3.U7 The liver intercepts blood from the gut to regulate nutrient levels.
- Explain the storage and release of glucose (including the role of glycogen, insulin and glucagon).
- Outline the role of the liver in protein metabolism (and resulting nitrogenous waste formation).
D.3.U8 Some nutrients in excess can be stored in the liver.
- List four example nutrients that can be stored by the liver.
D.3.A1 Causes and consequences of jaundice.
- Outline the function and source of bilirubin.
- Explain the role of hepatocytes and glucuronic acid in the conversion of bilirubin.
- List components of bile.
- Outline the role of bile ducts and gall bladder in the transport and storage of bile.
- Describe when, where and why bile is secreted during digestion.
- Define and list causes and symptoms of jaundice.
- Describe the use of UV light as a treatment for jaundice.
D.3.A2 Dual blood supply to the liver and differences between sinusoids and capillaries.
- Draw and label a diagram of the liver, including the left and right lobes, hepatic portal vein, hepatic artery and the hepatic vein.
- Compare liver blood supplies in terms of blood source (arrives from…), blood destination (flows towards…), and relative oxygen concentration.
- Draw a labeled diagram of a sinusoid, inclusive of: bile canal cells, bile duct, hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, arterioles and venules.
- Compare sinusoids to capillaries.
- Outline the relationship between liver lobes, lobules and sinusoids.
D.3.NOS Educating the public on scientific claims—scientific studies have shown that high-density lipoprotein could be considered “good” cholesterol.
- Compare and define LDL, HDL, IDL, VLDL and chylomicrons.
- Explain the structure of lipoproteins, including the types of molecules found in the hydrophobic core and hydrophilic surface.