Essential Idea: Reproduction in flowering plants is influenced by the biotic and abiotic environments.
- Outline answer to each objective statement for topic 9.4 (coming soon)
- Quizlet study set for this topic (coming soon)
9.4.U1 Flowering involves a change in gene expression in the shoot apex.
- Compare the vegetative and reproductive phases of the angiospermatophyta life cycle.
- State that flowers are produced from a shoot apical meristem.
- State two abiotic factors that may trigger flowering.
- Compare the timing of flowering in short-day plants and long-day plants.
- Outline the process by which changes in gene expression trigger flowering.
9.4.U2 The switch to flowering is a response to the length of light and dark periods in many plants.
- State the role of the pigment phytochrome.
- Describe the conversions between the two forms of phytochrome.
- Describe role of phytochrome in controlling flowering in long and short day plants.
9.4.U3 Success in plant reproduction depends on pollination, fertilization and seed dispersal.
- Define pollination, fertilization and seed dispersal.
- State the changes to the ovule and ovary that result from fertilization.
- List mechanisms of seed dispersal.
9.4.U4 Most flowering plants use mutualistic relationships with pollinators in sexual reproduction.
- Define mutualism.
- Explain an example of mutualism between a flowering plant and its pollinator.
9.4.A1 Methods used to induce short-day plants to flower out of season.
- State how plants can be manipulated to force flowering out of season.
9.4.S1 Drawing internal structure of seeds.
- Draw and label the structure of seeds, including:
- Embryo root
- Embryo shoot
- State the function of the different parts of the seed.
9.4.S2 Drawing of half-views of animal-pollinated flowers.
- Draw and label an animal pollinated flower, including:
- Nectar-secreting glands
- State the function of the different parts of the animal-pollinated flower.
9.4.S3 Design of experiments to test hypothesis about factors affecting germination.
- Define germination.
- Outline why water, oxygen and warmth are required for germination.
- Outline the role of gibberellin during germination.
- Write five example problem questions for experiments that could test factors affecting germination.
9.4.NOS Paradigm shift-more than 85% of the world’s 250,000 species of flowering plant depend on pollinators for reproduction. This knowledge has led to protecting entire ecosystems rather than individual species.
- Contrast traditional conservation efforts with newer strategies of conservation.