9.4.U1 Flowering involves a change in gene expression in the shoot apex.
Compare the vegetative and reproductive phases of the angiospermatophyta life cycle.
State that flowers are produced from a shoot apical meristem.
State two abiotic factors that may trigger flowering.
Compare the timing of flowering in short-day plants and long-day plants.
Outline the process by which changes in gene expression trigger flowering.
9.4.U2 The switch to flowering is a response to the length of light and dark periods in many plants.
State the role of the pigment phytochrome.
Describe the conversions between the two forms of phytochrome.
Describe role of phytochrome in controlling flowering in long and short day plants.
9.4.U3 Success in plant reproduction depends on pollination, fertilization and seed dispersal.
Define pollination, fertilization and seed dispersal.
State the changes to the ovule and ovary that result from fertilization.
List mechanisms of seed dispersal.
9.4.U4 Most flowering plants use mutualistic relationships with pollinators in sexual reproduction.
Explain an example of mutualism between a flowering plant and its pollinator.
9.4.A1 Methods used to induce short-day plants to flower out of season.
State how plants can be manipulated to force flowering out of season.
9.4.S1 Drawing internal structure of seeds.
Draw and label the structure of seeds, including:
State the function of the different parts of the seed.
9.4.S2 Drawing of half-views of animal-pollinated flowers.
Draw and label an animal pollinated flower, including:
State the function of the different parts of the animal-pollinated flower.
9.4.S3 Design of experiments to test hypothesis about factors affecting germination.
Outline why water, oxygen and warmth are required for germination.
Outline the role of gibberellin during germination.
Write five example problem questions for experiments that could test factors affecting germination.
9.4.NOS Paradigm shift-more than 85% of the world’s 250,000 species of flowering plant depend on pollinators for reproduction. This knowledge has led to protecting entire ecosystems rather than individual species.
Contrast traditional conservation efforts with newer strategies of conservation.
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