Essential Idea: Living Organisms control their composition by complex web of chemical reactions.
- Outline answer to each objective statement for topic 2.1 (coming soon)
- Quizlet study set for this topic
At SHS, Topic 2.1 is taught in the following class unit(s):
2.1.U1 Molecular biology explains living processes in terms of the chemical substances involved.
- Define “molecular biology.”
- Compare the benefits of a reductionist vs. systems approach to studying biology.
- Recognize common functional groups.
- Draw skeletal molecular structures from full structure diagrams.
2.1.U2 Carbon atoms can form four covalent bonds allowing a diversity of stable compounds to exist.
- Outline the number and type of bond carbon can form with other atoms.
2.1.U3 Life is based on carbon compounds including carbohydrates, lipids proteins and nucleic acids.
- List the four major classes of carbon compounds used by living organisms.
2.1.U4 Metabolism is the web of all the enzyme-catalyzed reactions in a cell or organism.
- Define metabolism and catalysis.
- State the role of enzymes in metabolism.
2.1.U5 Anabolism is the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler molecules including the formation of macromolecules from monomers by condensation reactions.
- Define anabolism, monomer and polymer.
- Describe condensation (dehydration synthesis) reactions.
- Using simple shapes to represent monomers, diagram a condensation reaction.
2.1.U6 Catabolism is the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler molecules including the hydrolysis of macromolecules into monomers.
- Define catabolism.
- Contrast anabolism and catabolism.
- Describe hydrolysis reactions.
- Using simple shapes to represent monomers, diagram a hydrolysis reaction.
2.1.A1 Urea as an example of a compound that is produced by living organisms but can also be artificially synthesized.
- Draw the molecular structure of urea.
- Describe how urea can be synthesized by living and artificial mechanisms.
2.1.S1 Drawing molecular diagrams of glucose, ribose, a saturated fatty acid and a generalized amino acid.
* for lipids
* for lipids
- Draw the molecular diagram of ribose.
- Draw the molecular diagram of alpha-glucose.
- Draw the molecular diagram of a saturated fatty acid.
- Identify the carboxyl and methyl groups on a fatty acid.
- Draw the generalized structure of an amino acid.
- Label the amine group, carboxyl group, alpha carbon and R group on an amino acid.
2.1.S2 Identification of biochemical such as sugars, lipids, or amino acids from molecular drawings.
- Identify the four major classes of carbon compounds used by living organisms from given diagrams (examples will include D-ribose, alpha glucose, beta glucose, trigylcerides, phospholipids and steroids).
- State the generalized chemical formula of the carbohydrates.
- Identify the following carbohydrates from molecular drawings: D-ribose, alpha glucose, beta glucose, cellulose, glycogen, amylose starch and amylopectin starch.
- Compare the relative amount of oxygen atoms in lipids to the amount in carbohydrates.
- Identify the following lipids from molecular drawings: triglycerides, phospholipids and steroids.
2.1.NOS Falsification of theories- the artificial synthesis of urea helped to falsify vitalism.
- Define vitalism.
- Explain the role of urea in the falsification of vitalism.