Essential Idea: The continued survival of living organisms including humans depends on sustainable communities.
- Outline answer to each objective statement for topic 4.1 (coming soon)
- Quizlet study set for this topic
Statements & Objectives:
4.1.U1 Species are groups of organisms that can potentially interbreed to produce fertile offspring.
- Describe limitations of the biological species concept.
- Define species according to the biological species concept.
4.1.U2 Members of a species may be reproductively isolated in separate populations.
- Define population.
- Outline how reproductive isolation can lead to speciation.
4.1.U3 Species have either an autotrophic or heterotrophic method of nutrition (a few species have both methods).
- Define autotroph and heterotroph.
4.1.U4 Consumers are heterotrophs that feed on living organisms by ingestion.
- Describe the feeding behaviors of consumers.
- List three example consumer organisms.
4.1.U5 Detrivores are heterotrophs that obtain organic nutrients from detritus by internal digestion.
- Describe the feeding behaviors of detritivores.
- List two example detritivore organisms.
4.1.U6 Saprotrophs are heterotrophs that obtain organic nutrients from dead organisms by external digestion.
- Describe the feeding behaviors of saprotrophs.
- List two example saprotroph organisms.
4.1.U7 A community is formed by populations of different species living together and interacting with each other.
- Define species, population and community.
- Give an example of a community of organisms.
4.1.U8 A community forms an ecosystem by its interactions with the abiotic environment.
- Define abiotic and ecosystem.
4.1.U9 Autotrophs obtain inorganic nutrients from the abiotic environment.
- Define nutrient.
- List the common nutrients needed by organisms.
- Outline how nutrients enter living systems.
4.1.U10 The supply of inorganic nutrients is maintained by nutrient recycling.
- State that chemical elements can be recycled but energy can not.
- Outline the generalized flow of nutrients between the abiotic and biotic components of an ecosystem.
4.1.U11 Ecosystems have the potential to be sustainable over long periods of time.
- Define sustainability.
- Give an example of an unsustainable practice.
- Outline three requirements of a sustainable ecosystem.
4.1.S1 Classifying species as autotrophs, consumers, detrivores or saprotrophs from a knowledge of their mode of nutrition.
- Use a dichotomous key to identify the mode of nutrition of an organism.
4.1.S2 Testing for association between two species using the chi-squared test with data obtained from quadrat sampling.
- Outline why sampling must be random.
- Explain methods of random sampling, including the use of a quadrat.
- State the null and alternative hypothesis of the chi-square test of association.
- Use a contingency table to complete a chi-square test of association.
4.1.S3 Recognizing and interpreting statistical significance.
- Calculate a chi-square statistic based on observed and expected values.
- State the null and alternative hypothesis of statistical tests.
- Determine if the null hypothesis is supported or rejected given a critical value and a calculated statistic.
- State the minimum acceptable significance level (p value) in published research.
- Explain the meaning of a “statistically significant” result, including the probability of chance having a role in the result.
4.1.S4 Setting up sealed mecocosms to try to establish sustainability. (Practical 5)
- Define mesocosm.
- List three example mesocosms.
- Outline requirements of setting up a mesocosm.
4.1.NOS Looking for patterns, trends and discrepancies- plants and algae are mostly autotrophic but some are not.
- State the trend found in the nutritional patterns of plants and algae.
- Describe the discrepancy in the nutritional pattern of parasitic plants and algae.