Outline how reproductive isolation can lead to speciation.
4.1.U3 Species have either an autotrophic or heterotrophic method of nutrition (a few species have both methods).
Define autotroph and heterotroph.
4.1.U4 Consumers are heterotrophs that feed on living organisms by ingestion.
Describe the feeding behaviors of consumers.
List three example consumer organisms.
4.1.U5 Detrivores are heterotrophs that obtain organic nutrients from detritus by internal digestion.
Describe the feeding behaviors of detritivores.
List two example detritivore organisms.
4.1.U6 Saprotrophs are heterotrophs that obtain organic nutrients from dead organisms by external digestion.
Describe the feeding behaviors of saprotrophs.
List two example saprotroph organisms.
4.1.U7 A community is formed by populations of different species living together and interacting with each other.
Define species, population and community.
Give an example of a community of organisms.
4.1.U8 A community forms an ecosystem by its interactions with the abiotic environment.
Define abiotic and ecosystem.
4.1.U9 Autotrophs obtain inorganic nutrients from the abiotic environment.
List the common nutrients needed by organisms.
Outline how nutrients enter living systems.
4.1.U10 The supply of inorganic nutrients is maintained by nutrient recycling.
State that chemical elements can be recycled but energy can not.
Outline the generalized flow of nutrients between the abiotic and biotic components of an ecosystem.
4.1.U11 Ecosystems have the potential to be sustainable over long periods of time.
Give an example of an unsustainable practice.
Outline three requirements of a sustainable ecosystem.
4.1.S1 Classifying species as autotrophs, consumers, detrivores or saprotrophs from a knowledge of their mode of nutrition.
Use a dichotomous key to identify the mode of nutrition of an organism.
4.1.S2 Testing for association between two species using the chi-squared test with data obtained from quadrat sampling.
Outline why sampling must be random.
Explain methods of random sampling, including the use of a quadrat.
State the null and alternative hypothesis of the chi-square test of association.
Use a contingency table to complete a chi-square test of association.
4.1.S3 Recognizing and interpreting statistical significance.
Calculate a chi-square statistic based on observed and expected values.
State the null and alternative hypothesis of statistical tests.
Determine if the null hypothesis is supported or rejected given a critical value and a calculated statistic.
State the minimum acceptable significance level (p value) in published research.
Explain the meaning of a “statistically significant” result, including the probability of chance having a role in the result.
4.1.S4 Setting up sealed mecocosms to try to establish sustainability. (Practical 5)
List three example mesocosms.
Outline requirements of setting up a mesocosm.
4.1.NOS Looking for patterns, trends and discrepancies- plants and algae are mostly autotrophic but some are not.
State the trend found in the nutritional patterns of plants and algae.
Describe the discrepancy in the nutritional pattern of parasitic plants and algae.
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