6.3.U1 The skin and mucous membranes form a primary defense against pathogens that cause infectious disease.
6.3.U2 Cuts in the skin are sealed by blood clotting.
6.3.U3 Clotting factors are released from platelets.
6.3.U4 The cascade results in the rapid conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin by thrombrin.
6.3.U5 Ingestion of pathogens by phagocytic white blood cells gives non-specific immunity to diseases.
6.3.U6 Production of antibodies by lymphocytes in response to particular pathogens gives specific immunity.
6.3.U7 Antibiotics blocks processes that occur in prokaryotic cells but not in eukaryotic cells
6.3.U8 Viruses lack a metabolism and cannot therefore be treated with antibiotics.
6.3.U9 Some strains of bacteria have evolved with genes that confer resistance to antibiotics and some strains of bacteria have multiple resistance.
6.3.A1 Causes and consequences of blood clot formation in coronary arteries.
6.3.A2 Effects of HIV on the immune system and methods of transmission.
6.3.A3 Florey and Chain’s experiments to test penicillin on bacterial infections in mice.
6.3.NOS Risks associated with scientific research- Florey and Chain’s tests on the safety of penicillin would not be compliant with current protocol on testing.
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