Essential Idea: The human body has structures and processes that resist the continuous threat of invasion by pathogens.
- Outline answer to each objective statement for topic 6.3 (coming soon)
- Quizlet study set for this topic
At SHS, Topic 6.3 is taught in the following class unit(s):
6.3.U1 The skin and mucous membranes form a primary defense against pathogens that cause infectious disease.
- Define pathogen.
- State that skin and mucous membranes form the first line of defense against pathogens.
- Outline the role of skin, sebaceous glands and mucous membranes in the defense against pathogens.
6.3.U2 Cuts in the skin are sealed by blood clotting.
- State two benefits of blood clotting when skin is cut.
6.3.U3 Clotting factors are released from platelets.
- Outline two roles of platelets in the blood clotting cascade.
6.3.U4 The cascade results in the rapid conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin by thrombrin.
- Describe the blood clotting cascade, including the role of platelets, clotting factors, thrombin, fibrinogen and fibrin.
6.3.U5 Ingestion of pathogens by phagocytic white blood cells gives non-specific immunity to diseases.
- State the white blood cells are the second line of defence against pathogens.
- Outline the function of phagocytic white blood cells in defense against pathogens.
6.3.U6 Production of antibodies by lymphocytes in response to particular pathogens gives specific immunity.
- Define “specific immune response.”
- Contrast antigen and antibody.
- Describe the structure and function of antibodies.
- State the function of plasma cells and memory cells.
6.3.U7 Antibiotics blocks processes that occur in prokaryotic cells but not in eukaryotic cells
6.3.U8 Viruses lack a metabolism and cannot therefore be treated with antibiotics.
6.3.U9 Some strains of bacteria have evolved with genes that confer resistance to antibiotics and some strains of bacteria have multiple resistance.
- List five measures that can be taken to avoid the development of antibiotic resistance.
- Explain why multiple drug antibiotic resistance is especially dangerous.
- State an example of a multidrug resistant bacteria.
6.3.A1 Causes and consequences of blood clot formation in coronary arteries.
- State the function of the coronary arteries.
- Define coronary thrombosis.
- List sources of arterial damage that increase the risk of coronary thrombosis.
- List factors that are correlated with an increased risk of coronary thrombosis and heart attack.
6.3.A2 Effects of HIV on the immune system and methods of transmission.
- Describe the consequences of the HIV on the immune system.
- Outline the relationship between HIV and AIDS.
- List ways the HIV virus is spread.
6.3.A3 Florey and Chain’s experiments to test penicillin on bacterial infections in mice.
6.3.NOS Risks associated with scientific research- Florey and Chain’s tests on the safety of penicillin would not be compliant with current protocol on testing.