7.2.U1 Gene expression is regulated by proteins that bind to specific base sequences in DNA.
- Define gene expression.
- State two reasons why gene expression must be regulated.
- Outline the environmental regulation of the breakdown of lactose in E. coli.
- Outline the role of enhancers, silencers and promoter-proximal elements in regulation of gene expression.
7.2.U2 The environment of a cell and of an organism has an impact on gene expression.
- Describe the use of twin studies to measure the impact of environment on gene expression.
- Outline two examples of environmental influence on gene expression.
7.2.U3 Nucleosomes help to regulate transcription in eukaryotes.
- Outline the effect of methylation of nucleosome tails on rates of gene expression.
- Outline the effect of acetylation of nucleosome tails on rates of gene expression.
7.2.U4 Transcription occurs in a 5’ to 3’ direction.
- Describe the initiation of transcription, including the role of the promoter, transcription factors, the TATA box and RNA polymerase.
- Describe elongation of transcription, including the role of nucleotide triphosphates and the direction of transcription.
- Describe termination of transcription, including the role of the terminator.
7.2.U5 Eukaryotic cells modify mRNA after transcription.
- List two major differences in gene expression between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells.
- Describe the three post-transcriptional modifications of pre-mRNA in eukaryotes.
7.2.U6 Splicing of mRNA increases the number of different proteins an organism can produce.
- Describe the process of alternative RNA splicing.
- Outline an example of alternative splicing the results in different protein products.
7.2.A1 The promoter as an example of non-coding DNA with a function.
- Outline the role of promoter DNA.
7.2.S1 Analysis of changes in the DNA methylation patterns.
- State the effect of DNA methylation on gene expression.
- Compare methylation patterns in twins using superimposed images of dyed chromosomes.
7.2.NOS Looking for patterns, trends and discrepancies- there is mounting evidence that the environment can trigger heritable changes in epigenetic factors.
- Define epigenetic and epigenome.
- List types of epigenetic tags.
- Discuss the role of reprogramming and imprinting on epigenetic factors.