7.2.U1 Gene expression is regulated by proteins that bind to specific base sequences in DNA.
Define gene expression.
State two reasons why gene expression must be regulated.
Outline the environmental regulation of the breakdown of lactose in E. coli.
Outline the role of enhancers, silencers and promoter-proximal elements in regulation of gene expression.
7.2.U2 The environment of a cell and of an organism has an impact on gene expression.
Describe the use of twin studies to measure the impact of environment on gene expression.
Outline two examples of environmental influence on gene expression.
7.2.U3 Nucleosomes help to regulate transcription in eukaryotes.
Outline the effect of methylation of nucleosome tails on rates of gene expression.
Outline the effect of acetylation of nucleosome tails on rates of gene expression.
7.2.U4 Transcription occurs in a 5’ to 3’ direction.
Describe the initiation of transcription, including the role of the promoter, transcription factors, the TATA box and RNA polymerase.
Describe elongation of transcription, including the role of nucleotide triphosphates and the direction of transcription.
Describe termination of transcription, including the role of the terminator.
7.2.U5 Eukaryotic cells modify mRNA after transcription.
List two major differences in gene expression between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells.
Describe the three post-transcriptional modifications of pre-mRNA in eukaryotes.
7.2.U6 Splicing of mRNA increases the number of different proteins an organism can produce.
Describe the process of alternative RNA splicing.
Outline an example of alternative splicing the results in different protein products.
7.2.A1 The promoter as an example of non-coding DNA with a function.
Outline the role of promoter DNA.
7.2.S1 Analysis of changes in the DNA methylation patterns.
State the effect of DNA methylation on gene expression.
Compare methylation patterns in twins using superimposed images of dyed chromosomes.
7.2.NOS Looking for patterns, trends and discrepancies- there is mounting evidence that the environment can trigger heritable changes in epigenetic factors.
Define epigenetic and epigenome.
List types of epigenetic tags.
Discuss the role of reprogramming and imprinting on epigenetic factors.
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