2.5.U1 Enzymes have an active site to which specific substrates bind.
- State the relationship between enzyme substrate and enzyme active site.
- Explain the relationship between enzyme structure and enzyme specificity, including the role of the active site.
2.5.U2 Enzyme catalysis involves molecular motion and the collision of substrates with the active site.
- Outline the three stages of enzyme activity.
- Explain the role of random collisions in the binding of the substrate with the enzyme active site.
- Describe the induced fit model of enzyme action.
2.5.U3 Temperature, pH and substrate concentration affect the rate of activity of enzymes.
- Explain how temperature affects the rate of enzyme activity.
- Draw a graph of depicting the effect of temperature on the rate of enzyme activity.
- Explain how pH affects the rate of enzyme activity.
- Draw a graph of depicting the effect of pH on the rate of enzyme activity.
- Identify the optimum temperature or pH for enzyme activity on a graph.
- Explain how substrate concentration affects the rate of enzyme activity.
- Draw a graph of depicting the effect of substrate concentration on the rate of enzyme activity.
2.5.U4 Enzymes are denatured.
- State the effect of denaturation on enzyme structure and function.
2.5.U5 Immobilized enzymes are widely used in industry.
- List industries that use commercially useful enzymes.
- Explain how and why industrial enzymes are often immobilized.
2.5.A1 Methods of production of lactose-free milk and its advantages.
- State the source of the lactase enzyme used in food processing.
- State the reaction catalyzed by lactase.
- Outline four reasons for using lactase in food processing.
2.5.S1 Design of experiments to test the effect of temperature, pH, and substrate concentration on the activity of enzymes.
- Identify and manipulated, responding and controlled variables in descriptions of experiments testing the activity of enzymes.
2.5.S2 Experimental investigation of a factor affecting enzyme activity. (Practical 3)
- Describe three techniques for measuring the activity of an example enzyme.
2.5.NOS Experimental design-accurate, quantitative measurements in enzyme experiments require replicates to ensure reliability.
- Define quantitative and qualitative.
- Determine measurement uncertainty of a measurement tool.
- Explain the need for repeated measurements (multiple trials) in experimental design.
- Explain the need to controlled variables in experimental design.