2.2.U1 Water molecules are polar and hydrogen bonds form between them.
- Describe the structure of an atom (in terms of protons, neutrons and electrons).
- Contrast ion with atom.
- Define anion and cation.
- Contrast covalent, ionic and hydrogen bonds.
- Write the molecular formula for water and draw the atomic structure of the molecule.
- Describe the cause and effect of the polar nature of water.
- Describe where and how water is able to form hydrogen bonds.
2.2.U2 Hydrogen bonding and dipolarity explain the cohesive, adhesive, thermal and solvent properties of water.
- Contrast adhesion with cohesion.
- Outline an example of the cohesive property of water being of benefit to life.
- Outline an example of the adhesive property of water being of benefit to life.
- Explain three thermal properties of water that are useful to living organisms.
- Outline a benefit to life of water's high specific heat capacity.
- Outline a benefit to life of water's high latent heat of vaporization.
- Outline a benefit to life of water's high boiling point.
- Explain why is water such a good solvent.
- List the types of molecules that water will dissolve.
2.2.U3 Substances can be hydrophilic or hydrophobic.
- State that polar and ionic molecules are hydrophilic.
- State that non-polar, non-ionic molecules are hydrophobic.
- Given a diagram of a molecular structure, determine if the molecule is hydrophilic or hydrophobic.
2.2.A1 Comparison of the thermal properties of water with those of methane.
- Compare the physical properties of methane and water.
- Explain why water and methane have different thermal properties based on their molecular structures.
2.2.A2 Use of water as a coolant in sweat.
- Explain sweating as a mechanism to cool the body.
2.2.A3 Modes of transport of glucose, amino acids, cholesterol, fats. oxygen, and sodium in blood in relations to their solubility in water.
- State if the following molecules are hydrophobic or hydrophilic: glucose, amino acids, cholesterol, fats, oxygen, and sodium chloride.
- Outline the mechanism of transport in the blood of the following molecules: glucose, amino acids, cholesterol, fats, oxygen, and sodium chloride.
2.2.NOS Use of theories to explain natural phenomena- the theory that hydrogen bonds form between water molecules explain the properties of water.
- State why scientists cannot prove without a doubt that hydrogen bonds exist between water molecules.