1.4.U1 Particles move across membranes by simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis and active transport.
1.4.U2 The fluidity of membranes allows materials to be taken into cells by endocytosis or released by exocytosis. Vesicles move materials within cells.
1.4.U3 Vesicles move materials within cells.
1.4.A1 Structure and function of the sodium-potassium pumps for active transport and potassium channels for facilitated diffusion in axons.
1.4.A2 Tissues or organs to be used in medical procedures must be bathed in a solution with the same osmolarity as the cytoplasm to prevent osmosis.
1.4.S1 Estimation of osmolarity in tissues by bathing samples in hypotonic and hypertonic solutions. (Practical 2)
1.4.NOS Experimental design- accurate quantitative measurements in osmosis experiments are essential.
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