Topic D.5: Hormones and Metabolism
Essential Idea: Hormones are not secreted at a uniform rate and exert their effect at low concentrations.
- Outline answer to each objective statement for topic D.5 (coming soon)
- Quizlet study set for this topic (coming soon)
Statements & Objectives:
D.5.U1 Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream.
- State the function of endocrine glands.
- State the function of hormones.
D.5.U2 Steroid hormones bind to receptor proteins in the cytoplasm of the target cell to form a receptor–hormone complex.
- Describe the mechanism of steroid hormone action.
- List two example steroid hormones.
D.5.U3 The receptor–hormone complex promotes the transcription of specific genes.
- List locations at which a steroid hormone binds its receptor.
- Outline one example of a steroid hormone promoting transcription of specific genes.
D.5.U4 Peptide hormones bind to receptors in the plasma membrane of the target cell.
- State the location at which a protein hormone binds its receptor.
- List two example protein hormones.
- Define “second messenger system.”
D.5.U5 Binding of hormones to membrane receptors activates a cascade mediated by a second messenger inside the cell.
- List the two most common second messengers.
- Describe the mechanism of epinephrine action.
D.5.U6 The hypothalamus controls hormone secretion by the anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary gland.
- Draw a diagram to illustrate the relationship between the hypothalamus and pituitary.
- Describe how releasing factors regulate anterior pituitary action.
- Describe how neurosecretory cells carry hormones to the posterior pituitary.
- Outline how negative feedback is involved in the secretion of ADH from the posterior pituitary.
D.5.U7 Hormones secreted by the pituitary control growth, developmental changes, reproduction and homeostasis.
- Outline the role of the hypothalamus as a link between nervous and endocrine systems.
- List hormones secreted by the anterior and posterior pituitary.
D.5.A1 Some athletes take growth hormones to build muscles.
- State that growth hormone is a peptide hormone.
- Outline the mechanism of action of growth hormone.
- Evaluate the use of growth hormones by athletes.
D.5.A2 Control of milk secretion by oxytocin and prolactin.
- List the source, target and function of oxytocin and prolactin as related to milk secretion.
D.5.NOS Cooperation and collaboration between groups of scientists—the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders includes a number of scientists who work to eliminate the harm done by iodine deficiency.
- Outline consequences of iodine deficiency.
- State the goal of the ICCIDD.