8.2.U1 Cell respiration involves the oxidation and reduction of electron carriers.
8.2.U2 Phosphorylation of molecules makes them less stable.
8.2.U3 In glycolysis, glucose is converted to pyruvate in the cytoplasm.
8.2.U4 Glycolysis gives a small net gain of ATP without the use of oxygen.
8.2.U5 In aerobic cell respiration pyruvate is decarboxylated and oxidized, and converted into acetyl compound and attached to coenzyme A to form acetyl coenzyme A in the link reaction.
8.2.U6 In the Krebs cycle, the oxidation of acetyl groups is coupled to the reduction of hydrogen carriers, liberating carbon dioxide.
8.2.U7 Energy released by oxidation reactions is carried to the cristae of the mitochondria by reduced NAD and FAD.
8.2.U8 Transfer of the electrons between carriers in the electron transport chain in the membrane of the cristae is coupled to proton pumping.
8.2.U9 In chemiosmosis protons diffuse through ATP synthase to generate ATP.
8.2.U10 Oxygen is needed to bind with the free protons to maintain the hydrogen gradient, resulting in the formation of water.
8.2.U11 The structure of the mitochondrion is adapted to the function it performs.
8.2.A1 Electron tomography used to produce images of active mitochondria.
8.2.S1 Analysis of diagrams of the pathways of aerobic respiration to decide where decarboxylation and oxidation reactions occur.
8.2.S2 Annotations of a diagram of mitochondrion to indicate the adaptations to its function.
8.2.NOS Paradigm shift-chemiosmotic theory led to a paradigm shift in the field of bioenergetics.
In the News: