3.5.U1 Gel electrophoresis is used to separate proteins or fragments of DNA according to size.
3.5.U2 PCR can be used to amplify small amounts of DNA.
3.5.U3 DNA profiling involves comparison of DNA.
3.5.U4 Genetic modification is carried out by gene transfer between species.
3.5.U5 Clones are groups of genetically identical organisms, derived from a single original parent cell.
3.5.U6 Many plants species and some animal species have natural methods of cloning.
3.5.U7 Animals can be cloned at the embryo stage by breaking up the embryo into more than one group of cells.
3.5.U8 Methods have been developed for cloning adult animals using differentiated cells.
3.5.A1 Use of DNA profiling in paternity and forensic investigations.
3.5.A2 Gene transfer in bacteria using plasmids makes use of restriction endonucleases and DNA ligases.
3.5.A3 Assessment of potential risks and benefits associated with genetic modification of crops.
3.5.A4 Production of clones embryos produced by somatic-cell nuclear transfer.
3.5.S1 Design of an experiment to assess one factor affecting the rooting of stem-cuttings.
3.5.S2 Analysis of examples of DNA profiles.
3.5.S3 Analysis of data on risks to monarch butterflies of Bt crops.
3.5.NOS Assessing risks associated with scientific research- scientists attempt to assess the risks associated with genetically modified crops or livestock.
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