Essential Idea: Biologists have developed techniques for artificial manipulation of DNA, cells and organisms.
- Outline answer to each objective statement for topic 3.5 (coming soon)
- Quizlet study set for this topic
3.5.U1 Gel electrophoresis is used to separate proteins or fragments of DNA according to size.
- Match restriction enzyme names to the bacteria in which they are naturally found.
- Describe the role of restriction enzymes in nature and in biotechnology applications.
- Contrast sticky vs. blunt ends.
- Identify a restriction site as either leaving sticky or blunt ends.
- Demonstrate accurate use of a micro-pipette.
- Determine the number and size of DNA fragments after being exposed to restriction enzymes (both linear and plasmid DNA).
- Explain the function and purpose of DNA electrophoresis.
- Describe how and why DNA fragments separate during electrophoresis.
- Outline the functions of the buffer, marker and loading dye in DNA electrophoresis.
3.5.U2 PCR can be used to amplify small amounts of DNA.
- State the function of the PCR.
- Describe the selectivity of the PCR.
3.5.U3 DNA profiling involves comparison of DNA.
- Outline the process of DNA profiling.
3.5.U4 Genetic modification is carried out by gene transfer between species.
- Outline how the universality of the genetic code allows for gene transfer between species.
3.5.U5 Clones are groups of genetically identical organisms, derived from a single original parent cell.
- Contrast sexual and asexual reproduction.
- Define clone and cloning.
- Describe different ways in which natural clones can arise.
3.5.U6 Many plants species and some animal species have natural methods of cloning.
- Define clone.
- Outline two examples of natural cloning in plants.
3.5.U7 Animals can be cloned at the embryo stage by breaking up the embryo into more than one group of cells.
- Describe the process of reproductive cloning via embryo splitting.
- Outline example of cloning animal embryos via natural and artificial embryo splitting.
3.5.U8 Methods have been developed for cloning adult animals using differentiated cells.
- Describe the process of reproductive cloning via somatic cell nuclear transfer.
- Outline the production of Dolly the sheep using somatic cell nuclear transfer.
3.5.A1 Use of DNA profiling in paternity and forensic investigations.
- List example sources of DNA that can be used in DNA profiling.
3.5.A2 Gene transfer in bacteria using plasmids makes use of restriction endonucleases and DNA ligases.
- Describe a technique for genetic modification including plasmids, restriction enzymes, reverse transcriptase and ligase.
- Outline why plasmids with genes coding for antibiotic resistance are chosen as vectors in gene transfer between species.
3.5.A3 Assessment of potential risks and benefits associated with genetic modification of crops.
- Outline potential environmental, health and agricultural benefits and risks associated with genetic modification of crops.
- Assess the risks and benefits of an example of a genetically modified crop (i.e. golden rice).
3.5.A4 Production of clones embryos produced by somatic-cell nuclear transfer.
- Compare therapeutic cloning to reproductive cloning.
- Outline the production of embryos via somatic cell nuclear transfer.
3.5.S1 Design of an experiment to assess one factor affecting the rooting of stem-cuttings.
- Outline preparation of a plant for rooting of a stem cutting.
- List manipulated, responding and controlled variables in an experiment of rooting stem-cuttings.
3.5.S2 Analysis of examples of DNA profiles.
- Analyze a DNA profile to determine relatedness or forensic guilt.
3.5.S3 Analysis of data on risks to monarch butterflies of Bt crops.
- Outline the formation and use of Bt crops in agriculture.
- Assess the impact of Bt corn on monarch butterflies.
3.5.NOS Assessing risks associated with scientific research- scientists attempt to assess the risks associated with genetically modified crops or livestock.
- State two ways in which the risk of scientific research can be assessed.